繼礦工出走區塊鏈面臨新考驗—— 量子電腦

記者冼俐君/台北編譯報導
區塊鏈獲譽為「信任機器」且備受應用端追捧為無須中間人而能自主運行的信任機器,但其中牽涉網絡安全性,以比特幣、以太坊為例,若礦工大量出走則遭受51%攻擊風險增加,另外,新崛起的量子電腦更是下一強大考驗。
據《日經新聞》(Nikkei Asian Review) 報導Chinese crypto miners taken down by bitcoin crash,比特幣暴跌重創中國挖礦鏈,相關業務開始崩塌,投資者聞聲極速撤離。曾經市值 3 萬元人民幣的礦機,如今正被業者以 400 元人民幣的低價拋售。該報導提到:
“Young Chinese who once dreamed of striking gold with cryptocurrency mining have faced setbacks since the bitcoin bubble burst last year.
比特幣泡沫於去年爆破後,夢寐以求想用加密貨幣挖取第一桶金的中國年輕人正面臨挫折。”
“Bitmain, the leader in cryptocurrency-mining computers, is also affected by the unexpected market upheaval. It had sought to debut on the Hong Kong stock market last year but has not even obtained approval to do so.
自此之後,加密貨幣的動盪市況越演越烈,就連中國礦機巨頭比特大陸也無力抵抗熊市。去年,該公司試圖在香港股市首次亮相,但至今仍未獲得批准。”
“As Beijing struggles for a breakthrough in the trade war with Washington, the government may offer a rescue. The Chinese government is looking to funnel money into the company, counting on its ability to develop semiconductors, according to a Shanghai venture capital firm.
一家上海創投公司指出,就在美中貿易戰僵持不下之際,中國政府正嘗試將資金投入企業界,從而更進一步激發中國開發半導體的能力,以利刺激該國經濟。因此,中國政府有可能會是最後一根「救命稻草」。”
除密碼貨幣價格影響區塊鏈網絡算力之外,年初CES(消費性電子展)中,科技大廠IBM發表量子電腦已點燃密碼學技術與量子電腦間的矛與盾競賽,由於區塊鏈透過密碼學進行加解密,使用者的帳號即為公鑰,而在創建號碼時即透過密碼學產生公私鑰,因此,公私鑰間具有關聯性。
而區塊鏈透明與匿名的特性,公鑰帳戶持有資產一目瞭然,因此,一但量子電腦技術提升追趕,則有心人可利用量子電腦運算能力破解私鑰,則可輕易進行資產移轉。
據《富比世》IBM Just Break Blockchain?報導,
“The claims that true blockchains are unhackable or the more accurate designation hack resistant negates the reality that complex systems fail in complex ways. This much is true especially when you countenance an evolving cyber risk landscape that is propelled by Moore’s law, as much as the miniaturization and commercialization of quantum computing is now a market reality – and several years ahead of schedule at that. Does this mean that blockchain is immediately more vulnerable and that people’s crypto hoards now face an additional peril beyond the ever-present risks in the space? The answer is a cautious no, at least for now.
區塊鏈所謂的「無懈可擊」,更精確來說應該是「有能力抵抗駭客」,但現實是「複雜的系統終將以複雜的方式垮台」,尤其當網路風險正依據摩爾定律(Moore’s Law)不斷發展演變,情況確實如此。如今,量子電腦的微型化和商業化已落實到市場,甚至有可能提前數年完成。然而,這是否就意謂著區塊鏈的優勢一文不值?而人們的加密貨幣囤貨也正面臨著前所未有的風險?至少目前來說,答案是否定的。”
對於量子電腦所帶來的潛在威脅,泰德陽光集團旗下交易所 TiDeal 執行長謝政諺早前即已投入研究,他表示,目前區塊鏈所使用密碼學技術仍領先量子電腦運算能力,未來只要密碼技術持續領先跑在前頭,就可免於被攻擊;同時提醒金融業者與用戶須留意帳號密碼,提醒使用者若目前金融卡以及網銀帳號的密碼為五碼,代表所使用的密碼學技術較弱,恐遭目前的量子運算攻陷,提醒資產轉往較安全的帳戶。
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